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Gynaecology

What does a gynaecologist do?

A gynaecologist is a specialist in the examination and treatment of female organs.

When to see a gynaecologist?

  • Menstrual disorders
  • Gynaecological infections
  • Pelvic inflammation
  • Vaginal problems (e.g. vaginal dryness)
  • Infertility
  • Cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer
  • Fibroids

Fibroids are a benign tumour of the female uterus. Typically common among middle-aged women aged 35-45, but may affect the younger age group. The biggest problem with the latter age group is that fibroids can also make conception more difficult. Of course, their occurrence depends on many things, such as individual characteristics, lifestyle, environmental influences, and hereditary factors. In most cases, the disruption of hormonal balance leads to the development of fibroids. The ratio of oestrogen to progesterone is upset, oestrogen dominance is created, which increases the cell division-stimulating effect of oestrogen on the uterine wall. As a result, fibroids form and grow. Larger fibroids can cause severe bladder complaints in addition to a feeling of tightness in the lower abdomen. Typical symptoms may include a marked increase in abdominal volume, frequent urination or urinary incontinence, and in some cases constipation.

  • Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cyst is a benign tumour containing fluid from the ovaries. Cysts are most commonly detected by ultrasound. Symptoms may include: lower abdominal pain, tenderness to pressure, bloating, bleeding disorders, abdominal discomfort, urination-stool complaints, increase in abdominal volume. Cysts may have one or more compartments based on content. While single-compartment cysts are usually not abnormal, multi-compartment cysts should always be investigated. If cysts are grouped by size, care should be taken to larger than 50 mm, as histology is usually ordered by a gynaecologist at this size. Cysts 20-30 mm in size are usually functional cysts and do not cause much complaint. Malignant lesions can originate from any tissue, especially if there is a genetic predisposition in the family. That is why it is very important that if you have an ovarian cyst, you should regularly check for changes in size.

  • Endometriosis

 

Endometriosis is when the endometrial cells from which menstrual bleeding occurs appear outside the cervix. This disease affects ninety-five percent of women of reproductive age, is more common in women who did not give birth, and is rare after changing age. The most common symptom is severe, lower abdominal cramping pain during menstruation with prolonged menstrual bleeding. For someone with endometriosis, intercourse becomes painful in addition to menstruation. Moreover, if endometriosis colonies are located around the bladder, lower abdominal urination pain may occur. In case the problem occurs near the intestinal tract, defecation will be painful, sometimes even bloody stools may occur.

  • Pregnancy, pregnancy care

Our doctors

Where can I get this medical specialty?

Common gynaecological examinations

Gynaecological examination consists of examination of the vulva, vagina, uterus, ovaries and cervical screening (cytology). In addition to the examination, vaginal ultrasound (or pregnancy ultrasound in the context of pregnancy care) is also performed.

In a complaint-free case, a gynaecological screening is required annually from the beginning of sexual life, which includes a basic gynaecological examination, cervical cancer screening, and gynaecological ultrasound. During cancer screening During cancer screening

cytological sampling is performed on the surface of the cervix. The test only takes a few minutes and is painless. Cervical cancer can be cured in a very good proportion, almost 100%, if detected early. That is why it is extremely important to carry out a screening test every year.

There are many reasons for bleeding disorders

  • Hormonal disorders such as thyroid problems.
  • Fibroids – A benign tumour of the uterus.
  • Contraceptive device placed in the uterus.
  • Fluorine complaint, perineum area discomfort, which may be due to e.g. fungal, bacterial infection, Trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Clamydia infection
  • Pelvic and lower abdominal pain, which can have numerous causes such as inflammation, myoma, endometriosis, PCOS syndrome
  • Investigating fertility problems
  • Investigation of complaints around menopause
  • Additional pregnancy test

The NIFTY test is currently the world’s leading non-invasive prenatal test (meaning it does not require medical intervention involving a cut or puncture). This means that there is virtually no risk of miscarriage, as there is no need to pierce the abdominal wall. The detection rate of the test is over 99%, so if the result is negative, we can be 99% sure that our foetus is not affected by any of the Down, Patau and Edwards syndromes. The test can detect a total of 18 types of syndrome, and the sex of the foetus can also be determined.

For whom and in what life situation is it recommended to perform it?

  • The mother is over 35 years old.
  • Biochemical tests and ultrasound examinations in the first or second trimester indicated a high risk of chromosomal abnormalities.
  • A chromosomal abnormality has occurred in a previous pregnancy or family.
  • Invasive prenatal procedures are contraindicated (e.g. increased risk of miscarriage).
  • In vitro fertilization or previous relapses of spontaneous abortion have been performed.

In addition to the above, it is recommended for all expectant mothers who want a test with higher reliability than the combined test. It is recommended that the test be performed at 10 to 18 weeks of gestation.

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